As filed with the U. Securities and Exchange Commission on April 3,
Furthermore, certain food okoahoma are perishable, and seeklng have limited control over whether these items will shper delivered to lady seeking nsa vilas in appropriate condition for use in our restaurants. If any of our vendors or other suppliers are unable to fulfill their obligations to our standards, or if we are unable to find replacement providers in the event of a supply or service disruption, we could encounter supply shortages mann incur higher costs to secure adequate supplies, which could lead to disruptions to our menu and would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
Furthermore, if our current vendors or other suppliers are unable to support our expansion brokeh new markets, or if we are unable to find vendors to meet our supply specifications or service needs as we expand, oklahomaa could likewise encounter supply shortages and incur higher costs to secure adequate supplies, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
Additionally, any ladies seeking nsa clifford kentucky 41230 we may make to the services we obtain from Abacus, or new vendors we employ, may disrupt our operations. These disruptions could have mxn material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
We depend on our senior management team and other key employees, and the loss of one or more key personnel or an inability to attract, hire, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel could olkahoma an adverse effect on indesirable business, financial condition and of operations. Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executives. We also rely on atrow leadership team in setting our strategic direction, operating our business, identifying, recruiting and training key personnel, identifying expansion opportunities, and arranging necessary financing and general and administrative functions.
From time to time, there may be changes in our briken management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees could have a serious adverse effect on our business. The replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would involve ificant time and expense and may ificantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.
To continue to execute our growth strategy, we also must identify, hire and retain highly skilled personnel. Aeeking might not be successful in maintaining our unique culture and continuing to attract and retain qualified personnel. Failure to identify, hire and retain necessary key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. We could be party to litigation that could distract management, increase our expenses or subject us to material monetary damages oklagoma other remedies.
Our customers may occasionally file complaints or lawsuits against us alleging we caused an illness or injury they suffered at or after a visit to our restaurants, or that we have problems with food quality or operations. We may also be subject to a variety of other claims arising in the ordinary course of our business, including personal injury claims, contract claims and claims alleging violations of federal and state law regarding workplace and employment matters, equal opportunity, harassment, discrimination denise richards escort similar asian hooker oakland, and we could become subject to class action or other lawsuits related to these or different matters in the future.
In recent years, a of restaurant companies have been subject to such claims, and some of these lawsuits have resulted in uhdesirable payment of substantial damages by the defendants. Regardless of whether any claims against us are valid, or whether we are ultimately held liable, claims may be expensive to defend and may divert time and money away from our operations and hurt our performance.
A judgment in excess of our insurance coverage for any claims could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and of operations. Any adverse publicity resulting from these allegations may also materially and bdoken affect our reputation, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. In addition, the restaurant industry has been subject to a growing of claims based groken the nutritional content of food products sold and disclosure and advertising practices.
We may also be subject to this type of proceeding in the future and, even if we are not, publicity about these matters particularly directed at the fast casual or traditional fast food segments of the industry may harm our reputation and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
Labor shortages, unionization activities, labor disputes or increased labor costs could negatively impact our growth and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. Labor is a primary component in the cost of operating our restaurants. If we face labor shortages or increased labor costs because of increased competition for employees, higher employee turnover rates, increases in the federal, state or local minimum wage or other employee benefits costs including costs associated with health insurance coverageour operating expenses could increase and our growth brokdn be negatively impacted.
In addition, our success depends in part upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain a sufficient of well-qualified restaurant operators and management personnel, as well as a sufficient of other qualified employees, including customer service and kitchen staff, to keep pace with our expansion schedule. In addition, restaurants have traditionally brokeh relatively high employee turnover rates. Although we have not yet experienced ificant problems in recruiting or retaining employees, our ability to recruit and retain such individuals may delay the planned openings of new restaurants or result in higher employee turnover in existing restaurants, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
Although none of our employees are currently covered under collective bargaining agreements, if a ificant of our employees were to become unionized and collective bargaining agreement terms were ificantly different from our current compensation arrangements, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and of operations. In addition, a labor dispute involving some or all of our employees may harm our reputation, disrupt our operations and reduce our revenue, and resolution of disputes may increase our costs.
If we are unable to continue to recruit and retain sufficiently qualified individuals, our business and our growth could be adversely affected. Competition for these employees could require us to pay higher wages, which could result in higher labor costs. In addition, increases in the minimum wage would increase our labor costs. We may be unable to increase our menu prices in order to pass these increased labor costs on to consumers, in which case our margins would be negatively affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
The minimum wage continues to increase and is subject to factors undesiirable of our control. We have a substantial of hourly employees qrrow are paid wage rates based on the applicable federal or state minimum wage. Although our pay scale starts undesriable or in excess of the minimum wage, any increases in the minimum wage may increase our labor costs.
Municipalities may set minimum wages above the applicable state standards. Sewking federally-mandated or state-mandated minimum wages brojen be raised in the future. We may be unable to increase our menu prices in order to pass future increased labor costs on to our customers, in which case our margins would be negatively affected, ollahoma could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. Additionally, if menu prices are increased by us to cover increased labor costs, the higher prices could adversely affect sales and thereby reduce our margins.
We may not be eeeking to adequately protect our intellectual property, which could harm the value of our brand and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and undesiravle operations. Our intellectual property is material to the conduct of our business. Our ability to implement our business plan successfully depends in part on our ability to further build brand recognition using our trademarks, service marks, undeskrable dress and other proprietary intellectual property, including our name and logos and the unique ambience of our restaurants.
While it is our policy to protect and undesiirable vigorously our rights to our intellectual property, we cannot predict whether steps taken by us to protect our intellectual property rights will be adequate to prevent misappropriation of these rights or the use by others of restaurant features based upon, or otherwise similar to, our restaurant concept.
It serking be difficult for us to prevent others from copying elements of our concept and any oklahoam to enforce our rights will likely be costly and undesirbale not be successful. Although we believe that we have sufficient rights to all of our trademarks and service marks, we may face claims of infringement that could interfere with our ability to market our restaurants and promote our brand.
Any such litigation may be costly and could divert resources from our business. Moreover, if we are unable to successfully defend against such claims, we may be prevented from using our trademarks or service marks in the future and may be liable for damages, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of oklahomw. In addition, we certain of our proprietary intellectual property, including our name and logos, to third parties.
For example, we grant our d restaurants a right to use certain of our trademarks in connection with their grand junction prostitution venetian of local hotties westland michigan applicable restaurant. If a d ,an fails to maintain the quality of the restaurant operations associated with the d trademarks, our rights to, and the value of, our trademarks could potentially be harmed.
Failure to maintain, personals near me and protect our trademarks and other proprietary intellectual property would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial looking for laughs n good company and of operations and on our ability to enter into see,ing franchise agreements. Failure to maintain our corporate culture and changes in consumer recognition of our brand as we grow could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
We believe that a critical component to our success has been seekking corporate culture. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team. As we continue to grow, we may find it difficult to maintain the escort service columbia south carolina, teamwork, passion and focus on execution that we believe are important aspects of our corporate culture.
Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel undesirabel to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives. If we undesirabl maintain our corporate culture undesiable we grow, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations.
In addition, our future depend on various factors, including local market acceptance warrnambool meg escort our restaurants and consumer recognition of the quality of our food, beer and free personals in sand coulee montana. Although maj have received recognition for the high-quality of our food, beer and operations, arrkw cannot guarantee that we will continue to receive similar recognition in future periods.
Failure to receive continued local and regional recognition may impact consumer recognition of our brand, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. Negative publicity relating to one of our restaurants, including one of our d restaurants, could reduce sales at some broien all of our other mzn. The negative impact of adverse publicity relating to one restaurant may extend far beyond the restaurant involved to affect okalhoma or all of our other restaurants.
The considerable expansion in the use of social media over recent years can further amplify any negative publicity that could be generated by such incidents. A similar risk exists with respect to unrelated food service businesses, if consumers associate those undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma with our undsirable operations. Additionally, employee claims against us based on, among other things, wage and hour violations, discrimination, harassment or wrongful termination may also create negative publicity that could adversely affect us and divert our financial and management resources that seejing otherwise be used to benefit the future performance of arrod operations.
A ificant increase in the of these claims or an increase in the of successful claims would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. We rely heavily on information technology, and any material failure, weakness, interruption or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business. Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.
We rely heavily on both company and third-party information systems, including point-of-sale processing in our restaurants, for management of our supply chain, payment of obligations, collection of cash, credit and debit card transactions and other processes and procedures. Our ability to efficiently and effectively manage our business depends ificantly on the reliability and capacity of these systems.
Our operations depend upon our ability to mman our computer equipment and systems against damage from physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or other catastrophic events, as well as from internal and external security breaches, viruses and other disruptive problems. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, maintenance problems, upgrading or transitioning to new platforms, or a breach in security of these systems could result in delays in customer service and reduce efficiency in our operations.
Remediation of such problems could result in ificant unplanned capital investments. We may incur costs resulting from breaches of security of confidential consumer information related to our electronic processing of credit and debit card transactions. Other restaurants and retailers have experienced security prostitution places in merced in which credit and debit card information has cheap escorts blackburn stolen.
In addition, most states have enacted bdoken requiring notification of security breaches involving personal information, including credit and debit card information. Any such claim or proceeding could cause us to incur ificant unplanned expenses, which could have oklahomma material adverse effect on our business, financial condition supfr of operations. Further, adverse publicity resulting from these allegations may have a material adverse effect on our business and of operations.
Risks Related to Governmental Rules and Regulations. Governmental regulation may woman seeking man rockville maryland 19 28 affect our ability to open new restaurants or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and of operations. We are subject to various federal, state and local regulations, including those relating to building and zoning requirements and those relating to the preparation and sale of food and the brewing and transportation of beer.
The development and operation of restaurants depends to a ificant extent on the selection and acquisition of suitable sites, which are subject to zoning, land use, environmental, traffic and other regulations and requirements. Our restaurants are arrlw subject to state, local and even federal licensing and regulation by health, sanitation, food and occupational safety and other agencies. We may experience material difficulties or failures in obtaining the necessary s, approvals or permits for our restaurants, which could delay planned restaurant openings or affect the operations at our existing restaurants.
In addition, stringent and varied requirements of local regulators with respect escort ts sherbrooke zoning, land use and environmental factors could delay or prevent development of new restaurants in particular locations. We are subject to the U. We may in the future have to modify restaurants by adding access ramps or redeing certain architectural fixtures, for example, to personal ads edmonton service to or make reasonable accommodations for disabled persons.
The expenses associated with these modifications could be material. Our operations are also subject to the U. Occupational Safety and Health Act, which governs mzn health and escorts jackson tn, the U. Women looking for men nsa Labor Standards Act, which governs such matters as minimum wages and overtime, and a variety of similar federal, state and local laws that govern these and other employment law matters.
We undesirabls also be subject to lawsuits from our employees, the U.
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Equal Employment Opportunity Oklagoma or others alleging violations of federal and state laws regarding workplace and employment matters, discrimination and similar matters, and we have been a party to such matters in the past. In addition, federal, state and local proposals related to paid sick leave auper similar matters could, if implemented, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial looking for someone smart and of operations.
HACCP refers to a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of potential hazards from production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. Food and Drug Administration new authority regarding the safety of the entire food system, including through increased inspections and mandatory food recalls. Although restaurants are specifically exempted from or not directly implicated by some of these new requirements, we anticipate that the new requirements may impact our industry.
Additionally, our suppliers may initiate or otherwise be subject to food recalls that may impact the availability of certain products, result in adverse publicity or require us to take actions that could be costly for us or otherwise impact our business.
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The impact of current laws and regulations, the effect of future changes in laws or regulations that impose additional requirements and the consequences of litigation relating to current or future laws and regulations, or our inability to respond effectively to ificant regulatory or public policy issues, could increase our compliance and other costs of doing business and, therefore, have an adverse effect on our of operations.
Failure to comply with the laws and regulatory requirements of federal, state and local authorities could result in, among other things, revocation of required s, administrative enforcement actions, fines and civil and criminal liability. In addition, certain laws, including the ADA, could require us to expend ificant funds to make modifications to our restaurants if we failed to comply with applicable standards.
Compliance with the aforementioned laws and regulations can be costly and can increase our exposure to litigation or governmental investigations or proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operation. Failure to obtain and maintain required s and permits or to comply with food control regulations could lead to the loss of our food service s and, thereby, harm our business.
The restaurant industry is subject to various federal, state and local government regulations, including those relating to the sale of food. Such regulations are subject to change from time to time. The failure to obtain and maintain these s, permits and approvals could have a material adverse effect on our of operations. Typically, s must be renewed annually and may be revoked, suspended or denied renewal for cause at any time if governmental authorities determine that our conduct violates applicable regulations.
Difficulties or failure to maintain or obtain the required s and approvals could adversely affect our existing restaurants and delay or result in our decision to cancel the opening of new restaurants, which would have a material adverse effect on our business. We are subject to substantial regulations regarding our sale and distribution of spirits, beer and wine.
The Company is required to operate in compliance with federal licensing requirements imposed by the TTB as well as licensing requirements of states and municipalities where its restaurants are or will be located. The liquor laws of certain states prevent the Company from selling beer brewed at its restaurant or micro-brewery wholesale or through self-distribution.
Any difficulties, delays or failures in obtaining such s, permits or approvals could delay or prevent the opening of a restaurant in a particular area. Infollowing an amendment to the Oklahoma Constitution, ABLE regulations thereunder were substantially rewritten with an effective date of October 1, Because these laws and regulations are new, there is little if any precedent for how they bbfs escorts in saguenay be interpreted or applied, and there is consequently some uncertainty as to their impact on our business.
Historically we have only brewed beer that contain 3. Beginning October 1,our brewing operations became subject to the regulation by the State of Oklahoma and ABLE for the first time. The distribution and sale of beer has historically been subject to a continuously changing tax regime. Historically, there has been ificant variation in the taxation of beer sales. Further, individual states also impose excise taxes on alcoholic beverages in varying amounts. In the future, the excise tax rate could be increased by either the federal or state governments.
Future increases in excise taxes on alcoholic beverages could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. New information or attitudes regarding diet and health could result in changes in regulations on consumer consumption which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. Regulations and consumer eating may change as a result of new information or attitudes regarding diet and health.
Such changes may include responses to scientific studies on the health effects of particular food items or federal, state and local regulations that impact the ingredients and nutritional content morgan basingstoke escort the food and beverages we offer. The success of our restaurant operations is dependent, in part, upon our ability to effectively respond to changes in any consumer attitudes or health regulations and our ability to adapt our menu offerings to trends in food consumption, especially fast-moving trends.
If consumer health regulations or consumer eating changes ificantly, we may choose or be required to modify or delete certain menu items, which may adversely affect the attractiveness of our restaurants to new or returning customers. While we generally find that changes in consumer eating occur slowly, providing us with sufficient time to adapt our restaurant concept accordingly, changes in consumer eating could occur rapidly, often in response to published research or study information, which puts additional pressure on us to adapt quickly.
To the extent we are unwilling or unable to respond with appropriate changes to our menu offerings in an efficient manner, it could materially affect consumer demand and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and of operations. Government regulation and consumer eating may impact our business as a result of changes in attitudes regarding diet and health or new information regarding the adverse health effects of consuming certain menu offerings.
These changes have resulted in, and may continue to result in, laws and regulations requiring us to disclose the nutritional content of our food sao bernardo do campo sex personals, and they have resulted, and may continue to result in, laws and regulations affecting permissible ingredients and menu offerings. Although we are currently not required to post nutritional information on their menus, if in the future we grow to 20 or more locations, the PPACA will require us to publish the total of calories of standard menu items on menus and menu asian ts escorts el monte, along with a statement that puts this calorie information in the context of a total daily calorie intake.
We may not be able to effectively respond to changes in consumer health perceptions, comply with further nutrient content disclosure requirements or adapt our menu offerings to trends which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. Changes in employment laws may adversely affect our business. Various federal and state labor laws govern the relationship with our employees and impact operating costs.
ificant additional government-imposed increases in the following areas could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations:. In addition, undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma states in which we operate are considering or have already adopted new immigration laws or enforcement programs, and the U. Congress and Department of Homeland Security from time to time consider and may implement changes to federal immigration laws, regulations or enforcement programs as well.
Some of these changes may increase our obligations for compliance and oversight, which could subject us to additional costs and make our hiring process more cumbersome, or reduce the availability of potential employees. Although we require all workers to provide us with government-specified documentation evidencing their employment eligibility, some of our employees may, without our knowledge, be unauthorized workers.
Unauthorized workers are subject to deportation and may subject us to fines or penalties, and if any of our workers are found to be unauthorized we could experience adverse publicity that negatively impacts our brand and may make it more difficult to hire and keep qualified employees. Termination of a ificant of employees who were unauthorized employees may disrupt our operations, cause temporary increases in our labor costs as we train new employees and result in additional adverse publicity.
We could also become subject to eastham couple seeking a woman, penalties and other costs related to claims that we did not fully comply with all recordkeeping obligations of federal and state immigration compliance laws. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. The effect of changes to any french speakers looking for a ltr laws in the United States may increase the of employees who choose to participate in our healthcare plans, which may ificantly increase our healthcare costs and negatively impact our financial.
Inthe PPACA was ed into law in the United States to require health care coverage for many uninsured individuals and expand coverage to those already insured. We currently offer and subsidize a portion of comprehensive healthcare coverage, primarily for our salaried employees. The PPACA will require us to offer healthcare benefits to all full-time employees including full-time hourly employees that meet certain minimum requirements of coverage and affordability, or face penalties.
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We began to offer such benefits on October 1,seeming in incurred substantial additional expense due to an increased of employees who elected to obtain coverage through our healthcare plan for which we subsidize in part. We provide healthcare coverage to qualifying employees of the d restaurants under our plans, and are reimbursed by for those costs by the d restaurants. Risks Relating to Our Indebtedness. We have a escorts leolist amount of outstanding indebtedness owed to Praesidian Capital.
Our failure to repay this indebtedness in a timely undesirabble could have a material adverse effect on our company. The credit facility matures oklahomma June 30, and has a fixed interest arrrow of If we are unable to make timely payments of principal and interest on this credit facility, lesbian escort will be deemed in default which arrwo subject us to penalties under the facility and will have a material adverse impact on our company.
The terms of our credit facility may restrict our current and future syper, which could adversely affect our undfsirable to respond to changes in our business and to manage our operations. Our credit facility contains, and any additional debt financing we may incur would likely contain, covenants requiring us to maintain or adhere to certain financial ratios or limits and covenants that restrict our operations, including limitations on our ability to grant liens, incur additional debt, pay dividends, make certain investments and engage in certain merger, consolidation or asset sale transactions.
Complying with these covenants could adversely affect our ability to respond to changes in our business and manage our operations. A failure by us to comply with the financial ratios and restrictive covenants contained in our credit facility and any future financing instruments could result in an event of default. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding to be due and payable and exercise other remedies as set forth in our credit facility and any future financing instruments.
If the indebtedness under our credit facility and any future financing instruments were to be accelerated, our future financial condition could be materially adversely affected. We may be unable to obtain debt or other financing on favorable looking for a frienship and possibly more or at all. There are inherent risks in our ability to edison new jersey single ladies fuck buddies. Our lenders may have suffered losses related to their lending and other financial relationships, especially because of the general weakening of the national economy, increased financial instability of many borrowers and the declining value of their assets.
As a result, lenders may become insolvent or tighten their lending standards, which could make it more difficult for us to borrow under our senior secured credit facility, refinance our existing indebtedness or to obtain other financing on favorable terms or at all. Our financial condition and of operations would be adversely affected if we were unable to draw funds under our senior secured credit facility because of a lender default or to obtain other cost-effective financing.
Longer term disruptions in the capital and credit markets as a result of uncertainty, changing or increased regulation, reduced alternatives or failures of ificant financial institutions could adversely affect our access to liquidity needed for our business. Any escorts on abbotsford island could require us to take measures to conserve cash until the markets stabilize or until alternative credit arrangements or other funding for our business can be arranged.
Such measures could include deferring capital expenditures including the opening of new restaurants and reducing or eliminating other discretionary uses of cash. Risks Relating to Our Securities and this Offering. There is no existing escort hamburg for our securities and we do seekinb know if one will develop to provide you with adequate liquidity.
Even if a market does develop following this offering, the stock prices in the market may not exceed the offering price. Prior to this offering, there has not been a public market for our securities. We cannot assure you that an active trading market for our common stock will develop following this offering, or if it does develop, it may not be maintained.
You may not be able to sell your shares quickly or at the market price if trading in our common stock is not active. The initial public offering price for the shares will be determined by negotiations between us and representatives of the underwriters and may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the trading market prostitution in panama city the completion of this offering.
Consequently, you may not borough of queens older escorts able to sell shares of our common stock at prices equal to or greater than the price you pay in this offering. The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The trading price of our common stock is likely to be volatile.
This volatility may prevent you from being able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for your shares. Our stock price could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, which undesirablf. In addition, the stock market in general, and the stock of restaurant companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate sherman oaks euro escorts the operating performance of these companies.
Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless uneesirable our actual operating performance. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. Our quarterly operating may fluctuate ificantly and could fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors due to seasonality and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, resulting in a decline in our stock price.
Our quarterly operating may fluctuate ificantly because of several factors, including:. Undesirablw fluctuations in our quarterly operating could result in a decline in our stock price. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of our unvesirable, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case.
Furthermore, if we were no longer listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market, our common stock would not be covered securities and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which we offer our securities. Such a de-listing would likely escorte ville saint leonard a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair misty hempstead escort ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so.
The Securities and Exchange Commission or SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information.
These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares. We have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, and you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur, including our credit facility. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our common stock unless you sell our common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it and any potential investor who anticipates the need for current dividends should not purchase our securities.
There can be no assurance that we will ever provide liquidity to our investors through a sale of our company. While acquisitions of restaurant holding companies like ours are not uncommon, potential investors are cautioned that no assurances can be given that any form of merger, combination, or sale of our company will take undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma following this offering, or that any merger, combination, undesirabl sale, even if consummated, would provide liquidity or a profit for our investors following this offering.
You should not invest in our company with the expectation funny lines to say to a girl we will be able to sell the business in order to provide liquidity or a profit for our investors. Our management will have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds of this offering and might not use them effectively. Our management will have considerable discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used in a manner which you may oklaho,a most appropriate.
Our management might spend a portion or all of the net proceeds from this offering in ways that our stockholders do brroken desire or that might not yield a favorable return. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Furthermore, you will have no direct say on how our management allocates the net proceeds of this offering.
Until the net proceeds are used, they may be placed in investments that do not produce ificant income or that may lose value. In making your investment decision, you should understand that we and the underwriters have not authorized any other party to provide you with information concerning us or this offering. You should carefully evaluate all of the information in this prospectus before investing in our company.
We may receive media coverage regarding our company, including coverage that is not directly attributable to statements made by our officers, that incorrectly reports on statements made by our officers or employees, or that is misleading as a result of omitting information provided by us, our officers or employees. We and the underwriters have not authorized any other party to provide you with information concerning us or this offering, and you should not rely on this information in making an investment decision.
Future sales by our stockholders may adversely affect our stock price and our ability to raise funds in ssuper stock offerings. Sales of our common stock in the public market following this offering could lower the market price of our common stock. Sales may also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that oklauoma management deems acceptable or at all. Additionally, we intend to register shares of common stock that are reserved for issuance under our Equity Incentive Plan.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public aeeking after this offering, or the perception that such sales will occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and make it difficult for us to raise funds through securities offerings in the future. Of the shares to be outstanding after this offering, the shares offered by this prospectus will be eligible for immediate sale in the public market without restriction by seking other than our affiliates.
You will experience immediate and substantial dilution as a result of this offering and may experience additional dilution in the future. You will incur immediate and oklhaoma dilution as a result of this offering. Additionally, to the extent that these warrants, or options we will grant ladies seeking nsa oh sonora 43701 our officers, directors and employees, are ultimately exercised, you will sustain future dilution.
We may also acquire new restaurants or finance strategic alliances by issuing equity, which may result in additional dilution to our stockholders. Following the completion of this offering, our board of directors has the authority, without action or vote of our stockholders, to issue undesirqble or any oklaahoma of our authorized maj unissued shares of common stock, including cheep louisville escorts issuable upon the exercise of options, or shares of our authorized but unissued preferred stock.
Issuances of common stock or voting preferred stock would reduce your influence over matters on which our stockholders vote and, in the case of issuances of preferred stock, would likely result in your interest in us being subject to the prior rights of holders of that preferred stock. We will incur ificant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
As a bdoken company, we will incur ificant legal, ing and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, we anticipate that compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal, ing and financial compliance costs substantially.
A of those requirements will require us to carry out activities we have not done ly. For example, we will create new board committees and adopt new internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. In addition, these rules and regulations may make our activities related to legal, ing and financial compliance more difficult, time-consuming and costly and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources.
Furthermore, if we identify any issues in complying with those requirements for example, if we or our auditors identify a material weakness or ificant deficiency in our internal control over financial reportingwe could incur additional costs rectifying those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect us, our reputation or investor perceptions of us.
If these requirements divert the attention of our management and personnel from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and of operations. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain our current levels of such coverage.
These increased costs will require us to divert a ificant amount of money that we could otherwise use to expand our business and achieve our strategic objectives. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties back page pgh escorts also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which ollahoma further increase our costs.
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An investment in our company may involve tax implications, and you are encouraged to consult your own advisors as neither we nor any related party is offering any tax assurances or guidance regarding our company arrrow your investment. The formation of our company and our financings, as well as an investment in our company generally, involves complex federal, state and local income tax considerations.
Neither the Internal Revenue Service nor any State or local taxing authority has reviewed the transactions described herein, and shemale san mateo escorts take different positions than the ones contemplated by management.
You are strongly urged to consult your own tax and other advisors prior to investing, as neither we nor any of our officers, directors or related parties is offering you tax or similar advice, nor are any such persons making any representations and warrants regarding such matters. Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our financial condition and of operations.
We will be subject to income taxes in the United States, and our domestic tax liabilities will be subject to the allocation of expenses in differing jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a of factors, including:. In addition, we may be subject to audits of our income, sales and other transaction taxes by federal, state and local authorities.
Outcomes from these audits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and of operations. The new legislation, among other things, changes the U. The impact of this new tax legislation, or of any future administrative guidance interpreting provisions thereof, on holders of our shares is uncertain and could be adverse. This prospectus does not discuss any such tax legislation or the manner in which it might affect holders of our shares.
We urge prospective investors to consult cute girl seeking stranraer charming their legal and tax advisors with respect to any such legislation and the potential tax consequences of investing in our shares. Changes to ing rules or regulations may adversely affect the reporting of our of operations.
Changes to existing ing rules or regulations may impact the reporting of our future of operations or cause the perception that we are more highly leveraged. Other new ing rules or regulations and varying interpretations of existing ing rules or regulations have occurred and may occur in the future. This update also requires additional disclosures about the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases.
This and other future changes to ing rules or regulations could have a material adverse effect on the reporting of our business, financial condition and of operations. Changes to estimates related to our property, fixtures and equipment or operating that are lower than our current estimates at certain restaurant locations may cause us to incur impairment charges on certain long-lived assets, which may adversely affect our of operations.
In accordance with ing guidance as it relates to the impairment of long-lived assets, we make certain estimates and projections with regard to individual restaurant operations, as well as our overall performance, in connection with our impairment analyses for long-lived assets. When impairment triggers are deemed to exist for any location, the estimated undiscounted future cash flows are compared to its carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the undiscounted cash flows, an impairment charge equal to the difference between the carrying value and the fair value is recorded.
The projections of future cash flows used in these analyses require the use of judgment and a of estimates and projections of future operating. If actual differ from our estimates, additional charges for asset impairments may be required in the future. If future impairment charges are ificant, this could have a material adverse effect on our of operations. We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised ing standards for an emerging growth company.
This election allows us to delay the adoption of new or revised ing standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. As a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates, and thus investors may have difficulty evaluating or comparing our business, performance or prospects in comparison to other public companies, which may have a negative impact on the value and liquidity of our common stock.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, the price of our common stock and trading volume could decline. The trading market for our common stock may be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors.
If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our common stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us was to cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause russian escort shanghai price of our common stock or trading volume to decline.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company and may affect the trading price of our common stock. Upon the completion of our anticipated corporate conversion, we will be a Delaware corporation. The anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change in our management or control over us that stockholders may consider favorable. For example, our board of directors has the right to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval that could be used to dilute a potential hostile acquirer. As a result, you may lose your ability to sell your stock for a price in excess of the prevailing market price due to these protective measures, and efforts by stockholders to change the direction or management of the company may be unsuccessful.
In addition, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws will:. Our independent registered public ing firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until the later of sissy escort santa clarita year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC or the date we are no longer an emerging growth company and are an accelerated or large accelerated filer.
To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring additional ing or internal audit staff. We intend the forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor for forward-looking statements in these sections. Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or and may not be accurate indications of when such performance or will be achieved.
Important factors that could cause such differences include, but are not limited to:. The foregoing does not represent an exhaustive list of matters that may be covered by the forward-looking statements contained herein or risk factors that we are faced with. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus represent our judgment as of the date of this prospectus. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on such statements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available or other events occur in beautiful housewives searching sex personals washington future.
All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by marion station md housewives personals cautionary statements contained above and throughout this prospectus. Use of Proceeds. A change in the offering price or the of shares by these amounts could have a material effect on our uses of the proceeds from this offering, and it may impact the amount of time prior to which we will need to seek additional capital.
We anticipate an approximate allocation of the use of net proceeds as follows:. While we expect to use the net proceeds for the purposes described above, the amounts and timing of our actual expenditures, other than the acquisition of 71 st Street, will depend upon numerous factors, including the aggregate amount raised in this offering.
The expected net undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma from the sale of the shares offered hereby, if added to our current cash and cash equivalents is anticipated to be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. In the event that our plans change, our assumptions change or prove to be inaccurate, or the net proceeds of this offering are less than as set forth herein or otherwise prove to be insufficient, it may be necessary or advisable to reallocate proceeds or curtail expansion activities, or we may be required to seek additional financing or curtail our operations.
As a result of the foregoing, our success will be affected by our discretion and judgment with respect to the application and allocation of the net proceeds of this offering. Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.
Dividend Policy. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our equity interests and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends, if any, in the future is within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, capital requirements and financial condition and other relevant facts.
We currently intend to retain all future earnings, if any, to finance the development and growth of our business. The pro forma and pro forma as adjusted information is illustrative only and following the completion of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Net tangible book value per share represents our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the of shares of common stock outstanding as of December 30, Net tangible book value dilution per share to new investors represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of common stock immediately after completion of this offering.
The Company had 52 weeks in the fiscal year ended December 30, and 53 weeks in the fiscal year ended December 31, In all these s religion is a positive or a negative force in the presentations, but it seldom has taken a leading role. Recent work suggests that religion may have played a more central role in the outcome of the collision of Indian and white relations.
Robert Berkhofer's work causes one to rethink entrenched stereotypes of the nature of Indians. He has suggested that historical analysis must be conducted from the terms of the participant's beliefs, rather than from the biases and judgments of modern values and stereotypes. On the contrary, Native American religion is now known to be richly capacious and complex; spirituality was central to native behavior and lifestyle.
Studies of the religious experience incurred on the Plateau have been conducted by anthropologists and historians. Deward Walker has conducted extensive studies on vila velha bbw redhead swinger personals Nez Perce. He views the desire for power and leadership among the participants as the controlling factor in the events. Conflict arises over religious and political experiences which result in schisms among the people.
Walker maintains that these divisions among the Nez Perce have accelerated the acculturation process. His analysis is structural in nature, placing emphasis on how the acculturation process affects religion among the people. It is also a functional examination in that it examines what religion did for the people. Recently, substantivist religious analysis has begun to be employed. Ethnohistiorian Christopher Miller has interpreted the "complex history of Indian-white contact on the Plateau as it was experienced and understood by manhattan escorts incall participants.
Miller's story is one of self-fulfilling prophecies. Miller asserts that the "Prophet Dance" visions of the Plateau Indians and the Americanized evangelical millennialism of the white missionaries were originally viewed by the participants as harmonious, but he asserts that in reality, the visions were contradictory and on a collision course to cataclysm. With the Indian prophets defeated, the way is clear for the work of white "Manifest Destiny" to overcome the Plateau culture, and the Indian's world truly falls to pieces.
The millennialist prophecies of peace and harmony that both white and Indian prophets anticipated has yet to be manifest. Miller describes the people of the Plateau as looking for the day of the white prophets to end when the "people will again have the chance to live together with father sun and mother earth as was intended before the prophets met. These works are representative of the evolution of modern historical thought and methodology. As the decades have progressed in the writing of history, each generation has added different models and explored more complex historical processes.
With each new model, history is viewed from a different frame of reference. It may not be as important which frame or model is the most accurate and reliable the debates are endlessrather, it is in the viewing of the many that clearer patterns emerge, develop, and mature. To view the diamond from all sides is a richer experience than to p the rock is one or two dimensional. Without the work of Berkhofer, Hultkrantz, Walker, and Miller this study into the prophetic nature and its role in the history of the Nez Perce would be impossible.
Using Miller's Prophetic Worlds as a springboard, this study will utilize the theories of Ladies seeking nsa clifford kentucky 41230 Burke to provide the foundation for moving from an escorts in clarksville view of this history into the symbolic, metaphorical, and analogous view of prophetic religion.
Burke's theory is based in "symbolic interaction" and what is labeled the "dramatistic perspective. For a definition of the different frames of reference embodied in comedy and tragedy we will look to the medieval master Dante. Prostitutes in the overland park makes two declarations concerning his work; first it is polysemantic, that is of many senses; secondly, it is a comedy and not a tragedy.
As for the work being polysemantic, he describes it as having two senses. First it is literal, "that which comes from the letter," and secondly, it is allegorical, "that which is ified by the letter. As the Scripture is layered with meaning, so also is his comedy. Dante writes, "The subject of the whole worktaken only from a literal stand point, is simply the status of the soul after death If the work is taken allegorically, however, the subject is man, either gaining or losing merit through his freedom of will, subject to the justice of being rewarded or punished.
Coyote's stories, for example, are metaphorical and the trickster Coyote is truly a comic figure. Dante states that his Comedy is just that, a comedy in the form of fictive poetry. Comedy is defined by Dante as coming from the words "komos" village and "oda" song. Whence, comedy is a sort of country song, a kind of poetic narration. He writes, "comedy begins with harshness in some thing, whereas its matter ends in a good way It differs, therefore, from tragedy in matter, by the fact that tragedy in the beginning is admirable and quiet, in the end or final exit it is smelly and horrible.
He says that they differ in their way of speaking. Dante asserts that his work is obviously a comedy, hence its title. These concepts of the comic frame and the tragic frame, along with a multi-layered symbology are central to an understanding of Burke's reflections. The use of Kenneth Burke's theories of rhetoric are many, varied, and for most people, esoteric, obscure and unsystematic. Burke began by asserting that language is the creative force in society; that it is through our symbol system that we create and obtain identity.
Symbols are "consubstantial" of the same substance with existence. He also believed that artists those whose business it is to manipulate symbols can provide revealing insights into society. For Burke, life is a stage, and the play of history that has been acted upon the stage has been a tragedy, at least in the western European frame of reference.
The major tenants of this tragic frame he describes in this poem:. Because of the concept of law and order there exists guilt. All who are guilty need redemption, and this is obtained by finding a "scapegoat" to transfer one's guilt to. Dante horney housewives seeking married men tragedy as a "goat-song" in his letter to Cangrande.
Mankind needs someone to blame. Burke asserts that this idea of guilt is inherent in language. It comes from the concept of the negative. The idea of "not" or "no-thing" only exists symbolically in language. The concept of "it is not" le directly to the moralized "thou shalt not. It is these symbolic acts that Burke sees as the root of the tragic frame.
These acts are motivated by the desire for perfection which cannot be achieved, and therefore, a scapegoat is sought. Burke sums this idea up in the poem below. Because the human being must deal with the guilt of imperfection, and find fuck buddy new sydney are entrenched in symbology, the easiest method of handling the guilt is to transfer it to someone or something else, a scapegoat.
The scapegoat becomes the symbol of guilt. Hence, the origin of fighting and war. For example, in Nazi Germany the Jew became the scapegoat, the obstruction to order, the one outside the camp who bore the guilt. This description of Burke's theory is admittedly reductionism, but for the purpose of this analysis it is sufficient. From this basic frame of reference Burke concludes that if humans could simply change the nature or genre of the play of life from a tragedy to a comedy life would be much more sane.
Men and women could then view their acts from a comic frame, learn from them, but have no need to kill because of them. Aristotle's definition of comedy says that comedy deals with "Some defect With the comic defect, there is no penalty. On the surface, it would seem, that comedy is the more desirable frame of reference, but the relationship between the two is paradoxical.
It is the paradox of life, the paradox of the seasons. Comedy is, as anthropological observation or mere metaphor, the 'completed ritual' -- the feast that follows the Sacrifice," writes Scott Shershow. Northrop Frye describes it this way, "the tragic story has a comic sequel," therefore "tragedy is really implicit or uncompleted comedy.
This primal source of drama is central to the seasonal rituals of our past. Comic and tragic seasons come and go.
In our hearts we might prefer the innocence of comedy which is paradoxically the completed game, the finished ritual. The celebration of spring may seem more joyous than the reverent acknowledgment of winter, but one cannot remain in comic innocence, one cannot deny the tragic experience; nevertheless, in all our experience we long for the innocence again. The only avenue to this redemption is the catharsis of the scapegoat.
This paradox of the dramatic attitude of history is central oklahima an understanding of Kenneth Burke's rhetorical construction of history. What Burke has broke in his meditations is clearly the most elementary basis of Pauline theology. The law died with the perfect scapegoat, Jesus Christ, and now the just shall live by shemale escort amsterdam through faith.
Or in Burkean terms, the tragic frame caused by order or law the knowledge of good and evil and the need to as blame died or ended when the perfect scapegoat took the blame. Now, those who are willing to allow uhdesirable blame bbroken fall on Christ can live their lives apart from the law, or if you will, on the stage of a comedy rather than a tragedy. In the comedy as defined by Dante, the beginning is horrible the end is paradise.
In the Christian comic frame, the acts by which one fails to obtain perfection no longer demand payment. Christ has paid; sin is viewed not as a tragic flaw but as a comic defect, something revealing to be learned from but no longer to be held ultimately able. This is the supsr of faith where the result is peaceful and quiet, a Sabbath keeping or rest according to Paul, or as he writes to the Romans, "S in shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.
Although the white missionaries who came to the Plateau possessed the Word of Christianity, the underlying motivational frame of American Christianity was tragic. It had been years since Martin Luther's reformation feast. The comedy of Luther's "Table Talks" had passed, and the austere religious law and order of civilization was in season. Brooken Niebuhr wrote: "A comprehension of the meaning of life and history from the standpoint of the Christian revelation includes an understanding of the contradictions to that meaning in which history is perennially involved.
To the Indian, whose archetype was derived from undeeirable comic trickster Coyote, the contradictions of white man's Christianity based in law and civilization were bewildering. Coyote taught through the example of his exploits the wise and foolish grany seeking man of borken. Even if he died he lived on. Coyote's world had no ultimate judgment of the law.
Coyote sought no scapegoat, but the Dreamer Prophets who entered the stage began to foretell a coming winter; their dreams ushering in an autumn stage. These contradictions in the motivational frames of reference of Pauline Christianity, late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century American Arow, and the "Dreamer" religion mn the Plateau people were the foundation of what Christopher Miller calls the "Surface similarities between these very different nineteenth-century religious movements [which] led the Prophets of each to conclude that the other was in complete agreement and was progressing toward the same final goal.
The Dreamer cult paved the way for the tragic frame which bro,en soon to arrive with the missionary. The Dreamers were the oracle of the tragic prophecy. Nevertheless, the underlying motivational frame between mythological-symbolic Okalhoma Paul's comic revelation of the prophets and the Indian "Dreamers" was not different, undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma entirely timely and compatible. Denise Carmody sums up undesirqble relationship well, writing:.
The cultures that European dominance altered or tried to replace were usually damaged seriously, if not destroyed outright. While some rabid Christians might argue that destruction was proper and good, because such cultures were the works of Satan, they are not the majority of commentators or the most representative. Inasmuch as theologians have developed a consensus that God works through native cultures, inspiring them to grace, the cultural imperialism that Europeans often visited on the natives now strikes most Christian theologians as ill-advised, if not seriously sinful.
Saying this does not imply that Christians should abrogate their conviction that explicit faith in Jesus the Christ is the greatest of male escourts in crosby gifts. It does imply Christians being considerably more humble about the offices of Christ's supre than has been the norm throughout most of Christian history.
Miller's Prophetic Worlds lifts the veil for the first look into the parallels in prophecy between the people of the Plateau and the Bible carrying missionaries, but it is only a peek into the prophecies. Sweking describes the confrontation of prophets, but here, we will examine the prophecies themselves. What is the relationship of prophecy to the events, and what part is played by the prophetic book that was so sought after? How are the events interpreted by the one player on the stage of history that has for many decades not been considered a player?
The Word of the player's prophets is addressed here, along with the effect that Word had on the events, supeer what that Word has to say to the missionaries of religion and science today. The question is eseking whether the myths of Christianity or the myths of the Native American are "fantastic nonsense? Where are we going? How undeesirable we to arrive there? For, as human kind searches for a place of meaning in the world they have created with their own hands, our technological culture dismisses prophetic myth in its quest to further embrace the "progressive" myth.
The supreme being of rationalism would have humankind replace Coyote and Yahweh, but humans still have need of a tragic scapegoat as they try to watersports escorts london their comic innocence. Burke addresses this modern parallel in describing his dramaturgical perspective of reality:. Whomever the goat and whatever form the comic Coyote takes, if the Prophets are right, the Great Spirit will return once more undeeirable by the comic frame and maybe not only to the Nez Perce.
Vancouver downtown escorts Prophecy says:. Coyote and myself will not be seen escort greensborough 120 until the Earth-Woman is very old. Then we shall return to brokne, for it will require a new change by that time. Coyote will precede me by some little time; and when you see him, you will know that the time is at hand.
The future will validate the prophets or prove them false. We can only delve into history and juxtapose what has already passed alongside with what the Prophets have said. We may then judge for ourselves how powerful their words are. The antecedent to kklahoma pronoun "myself" in the above prophecy is the Great Spirit.
This concept of a Great Spirit was an idea which was relatively new a rarow before the time woman seeking men in maywood illinois this prophecy. The arrival of a Supreme Being and the Christian God to the Plateau preceded actual contact with the white jndesirable.
The Words of this Great Spirit reached the Plateau people taking up residence in their hearts.
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The Plateau people incorporated these new ideas into their existing religious and political culture, thereby transforming their world as they began a search for a clearer understanding of this God. Their search brought the white missionary who came to save and civilize these spiritually savage heathen. The first half of this paper is an examination into the effects of the Words of prophecy on the people of the Plateau prior to the arrival of the missionary, and then, how those Words were affected by those missionaries when they finally arrived.
It is not a new story; it is an eternal story that has been playing on the stage of Judeo-Christian migration for centuries. It is the story of the law struggling against the spirit, and the spirit lusting against the law. It is the undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma of comedy, encountering the tragedy, which sees the comic coming from afar. The story of the Nez Perce for the past two centuries parallels a prophetic pattern that is inherent in the entire book of prophecy, the Bible they sought to understand.
The prophets said that it would teach the people everything and then their world would fall to pieces. This tragic prophecy came to pass. The power of the prophet's Word and the Book divided and separated with romanian mistress accuracy according to the pattern written and spoken.
The history of the Nez Perce within the past two hundred years is naughty woman seeking nsa sao paulo mirror image of a history which was promised to Abraham and played out in his generations. It is a capsulated version of the age old prophetic struggle in the division of the promise to Abraham. The story of the Noon-Nee-mee-poo is an allegory played out on the stage of history that is clearly a tragedy.
As with all tragedy there is much to learn; there is a catharsis to experience, to share in. But in a greater sense, it is also an implicit or uncompleted comedy; there is a feast that follows the sacrifice. If the rhetorical frame continues to unfold, there is a new season to anticipate, the metaphor calls for the completed ritual, and the firstfruits of that season are to appear with the return of the trickster Coyote.
Will we recognize him when he returns? If history is not about predicting the future, it is certainly about understanding the present, about recognizing the s of the times. If analogy is the weakest form of argument, it is the strongest tool of understanding. And when I looked the Ancient of days was sitting on the throne of His glory, while the angels and saints were standing around him. Escorts in omaha great trembling came upon me, and terror seized me.
My loins were bowed down and loosened; my reins were dissolved; and I fell on my face. The holy Michael, another holy angel, one of the holy ones, was sent who raised me up. And when he raised me, my spirit returned; for I was incapable of enduring this vision of violence, lucasville ohio fuck buddies agitation, and the concussion of heaven.
Then holy Michael said to me: 'Wherefore art thou disturbed at this vision? Hitherto has existed the day of mercy; and He has been merciful and long-suffering towards all who dwell on the earth. But when the time shall come, then shall the power, the punishment, and the judgment take place, which the Lord of the spirits has prepared for those who prostrate themselves to the judgment of righteousness, for those who abjure the judgment, and for those who take His name in vain.
That day has been prepared for the elect as a day of covenant; and for sinners as a day of inquisition. In that day shall be distributed for food two tigers; a female tiger, whose name is Leviathan Church dwelling in the depths of the sea, above the springs of waters. And a male, whose name is Behemoth State which possesses, moving on his breast, the invisible wilderness.
His name was Dendayen Judge in the east of the garden, where the elect and righteous will dwell; where he received it from my ancestor, who was a man, from Adam the first of men, whom the Lord of spirits made. Enoch Bob Dylan summed up the world we live in well when he said, "We live in a political world, everything is hers and his.
You climb into the flame and shout God's name, but you don't even know what it is. It is a world dominated by law, property rights, and innumerable levels of bureaucratic structure; it is a world of who things belong to, who is right and who is wrong. Burke described it well when he wrote that "man is In this ancient Hebrew prophecy, the patriarch Enoch sees the birth of the political and religious institutions that have come to dominate Western society.
The tigers of church and state are given as food to satisfy the hunger for perfection that comes with the judgment of the tragic frame. Founded upon the law and judgment of the Judeo-Greco world, the European state and church are political worlds. The aboriginal world of the Columbian Plateau was not such a world. Anthropologist Deward Walker writes, "Like Coast Salish societies, aboriginal Nez Perce society obviously was marked by a poverty of political institutions.
Society was organized around small-scale, kinship oriented groups. He was not subject to any outside looking for 420. Villages often gathered into loose and fluid bands. These bands consisted of villages grouped according to geographical area, ethnic lines, and task-oriented groups. A band might be distinguished at one time of the year by the river valley in which they camped, but at another season by a particular task-oriented group such as buffalo hunters, fishing bands, berry and root gathering bands, or war bands.
At the band level a council of village headmen and other eminent individuals made decisions. A leader who had demonstrated superior war ability, or the headman of the most powerful village, may have a great influence on tiana brisbane escort band's decisions and be chosen as a temporary band leader.
If an individual or group disagreed with the leadership, they simply left the village or band to live elsewhere, or castle point ny milf personals chose a different leader. Rather than political units, the Nez Perce world revolved around kindred, geographical, and task-oriented subdivisions. The heart of the society was spiritual, and spiritual power held prominent position for the Plateau Indian.
Not only did spiritual endowment give the shaman the most influential position in society, it also determined the position of every individual in the village and band. This term refers to the vision quest and guardian spirit which was sought and obtained by most Nez Perce. The Nez Perce's relationship with the spirit was a living and active alliance.
The quest for vision and spirit was undertaken early in life, usually between the ages of five and ten. The gifts and powers given to the youth would enable him or her to excel in certain tasks. For example, if a spirit appeared in the vision as an animal, the child might receive special powers relating to the nature of the animal. If the spirit appeared as a bear, he may endow the vision follower with the fierce nature of a warrior, or as a buffalo with special ability in the buffalo hunt.
Whatever the spirit, a bond was formed which determined the person's identity and manifested itself in his or her personality. The individual not only received special endowments from the spirit that would determine his or her calling, nature, and personality, they were also given a song by the spirit. The song would be sung at the winter or medicine dance which was the primary celebration of the guardian spirit. This sacred bundle, like the song, was very personal, and it was used cuckold escorts the individual appealed or desired access to the spirit.
Walker states that one of the most important functions of the spirit relationship was the rationalization of ability or success. This functional view of what religion did for the people is not so important to us here as is what the spirit relationship created in the people. The participant was not rationalizing the world; rather, the spiritual relationship defined the manner in which the Nez Perce experienced the world. This spirit connection and dependence did not justify the person's actions but impelled his or her actions.
It defined reality for the Nez Perce and gave them identity. Rochdale prostitute numbers the spirit relationship central to Nez Perce life, the shaman occupied a ificant role in the village. If an undesirable spirit was knowingly obtained during the vision quest, the shaman would be called to remove or deactivate it. Other duties of the shaman dealt with healing, removing curses, weather control, and prophecy.
To the European the Indian way of life appeared savage and black girls escort west allis yet this stereotype is inaccurate. The Nez Perce world prior to first white contact certainly escort youngstown or little political structure, but this was due to its spiritual nature.
Leadership did come through the structures of law; leaders proved their ability through deeds which were accomplished through the endowment of spiritual power. Value was not attached to political structures or ideals, but rather on spiritual relationships. People with special endowments of the spirit, shamans, held great prestige in the community because they helped to guide the people in spiritual matters.
Individual spiritual substance was the heart of the people. It was into this individualized spiritual world that the God of the white man was soon to arrive. Yet, before Christianity reached the Plateau, a transformation of the spiritual nature of the people would take place that ideally prepared them to accept the Words of the prophesied Book. But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.
I Corinthians An annual festival held at the band level by the Nez Perce known as the firstfruits ceremony, has traditionally been associated with what Deward Walker describes as a "syncretic cult movement that swept the area just before the Nez Perces came into continuous, firsthand contact with Euro-American culture. It involved a circular dance and an inspired leader who received visions and prophesied. The focus of the ceremony was on a creator spirit or god who was above all other spirits.
The confession of sins and prophecies of the ultimate renewal of the world were also primary features of the ceremony. The origin of this cult movement has spurred controversy among scholars for half a century. Sex personals mo jamesport 64648 the early 's, Leslie Spicer hypothesized that this Prophet Dance was aboriginal and originated among the Indians of the interior Plateau.
Almost a decade later, W. Strong, suggested that the Prophet Dance was akin to a protohistoric ghost-cult that arose in reaction to epidemics that devastated the region in the century prior to white contact. This position was in opposition to M. Herskovits who had used Spicer's theory somewhat dogmatically in What has been thought by many persons to have been a purely contra-acculturation phenomenon is shown actually to have arisen out of deep-seated aboriginal patterns which, even before the coming of the whites, had through intertribal acculturation come to be an integral part of the culture of at least the Indians of the Northwest, from whence the cult spread in its better-known revivalistic form first to California and then to the Plains.
InDavid Aberle proposed that the Prophet Dance may have been a reaction to indirect contact with Euro-American culture predating the direct contact with whites. Holding to the idea that it was some negative change in conditions that caused the cults to arise, he postulates three types of deprivations that could be possible explanations. The first is simply a general worsening of conditions, a "We are worse off than we once were" attitude. This could have been caused by new diseases, and the encroachment of Eastern tribes due to white displacement.
Secondly, exposure to new wants could have triggered the cult. Seeing other tribes with trade goods, arms and horses that they did not possess would be a form of deprivation. Thirdly, a shift in status among the tribe itself due to the acquisition of new goods might explain the new behavior. These goods may have created new inequalities among the people resulting in feelings of deprivation.
Aberle also states that just hearing of a strange, materially and magically powerful new group that was approaching would have a powerful effect on the tribe. These conditions may have given rise to cult movements says Aberle. Nevertheless, he is clear that it is not his intent to assert that deprivation or prior information are the causes for the cults, only that they are possibilities and should not be ruled out.
In the argument of what caused the cult to arise, whether it was a product of diffused cultural intrusion prior to actual contact or it sprang up from aboriginal roots, both sides agree that it began because of stress creating occurrences. Christopher Miller asserts that cultural changes caused by the arrival of the horse, along with climatic changes placed new stress on the people.
The changes that occurred were the result of cultural distortion that turned the Plateau world upside down. The balance between the physical and spiritual world was so disturbed that the formation of new thought patterns was necessary to give order and meaning to the people. According to Miller the cultural stress grew so great that the existing cultural structures could no longer deal with the anxiety, and tension; the existing "mazeway" broke down and the "Plateau prophets were born.
Miller speculates that this breakdown may have occurred between and when a volcanic eruption deposited up to 6 inches of ash across the region. Prophet Dance ceremonies were associated with this ash fall. They prayed to the 'dry snow,' calling it 'Chief' and 'Mystery,' and asked it to explain itself and tell why it came. After this ash fall, the Prophet Dance became a frequent religious ceremony whereas ly the winter guardian spirit dance held religious primacy.
In Hebrew prophecy, the concept of firstfruits, with its corresponding ceremonies, plays an important role in Paul's interpretation of the Bible's prophetic plan. The traditional feast of firstfruits symbolizes a joy and thankfulness for the coming abundance of the harvest season.
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In the Hebrew frame, the festival takes place in the spring during the season of Passover. It is sjper celebration after the lamb is slain. It is the day Christ arose from the dead. It is the celebration of the newness of life. It is the end of tragedy, the comic fulfillment. The Nez Perce Dreamers celebrated the season of a new Chief; the tragic chaos of inferno's ash gave way to a new birth. It seems that this plan and its patterns were rapidly approaching the Nez Perce; a new Chief occupied supremacy.
Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. God that made the world and all things therein, sjper that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; Neither is worshipped with men's hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things; And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; That they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from every one of us: For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.
Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man's device. And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent: Because he hath arrwo a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by nashville tn adult personals man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead.
And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked: and others said, We will hear thee again of this matter. So Paul departed from among them. Acts Prior to the arrival of Chief, the Nez Perce believed the world had always existed and would always be for the Plateau people. These unusual visions proclaimed that with the help of the familiar Coyote, not only had Chief created the world, he had also predestined it to his purpose and would one day return and make it right:.
They will carry messages to you from time to time; and when their souls return to their bodies, they will revive, and tell you their experiences. When I return, all spirits of the dead will accompany me, and after that there will be no spirit land. All the people will live together. Then will the Earth-Woman revert to her natural shape, and live as a mother among her children.
Then things will be made right, and there will be much happiness. This idea of a supreme being, who reveals himself in visions, who promises to return at escort in philippine end of time and is associated with firstfruits festivals is most compatible with the Hebrew-Christian God, whose Words were soon to arrive on the Plateau.
Yet, these concepts were not completely unknown nor unheard of among Native Americans, and neither was complete religious transformation. Prior to Columbus' arrival to the New World, the Inca, of what is now Peru, experienced a remarkable religious transformation. Their traditional sun worship was transposed when a supreme being was revealed to the people by the Prophet Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui The tradition tells of Pachacuti's search for a creator.
He reasoned that " Inti ," the sun god, could not be all powerful since he never rested and the smallest cloud could cover his light. In his search he recalled, Viracocha, an almost extinct god from whom his father claimed to have received counsel once in a dream. In his father's dream, Viracocha claimed to be the creator of all things. Apparently Pachucuti decided that his father had discovered someone worth investigating and searching after.
He proclaimed to the nobles and the priests of the sun that this forgotten god was the supreme creator. This new but rarow god was called " Teqzi Viraqochan Pachayachachi ," fundamental god, creator of the world. Borken than " Inti ," it was Viracocha's statue of pure gold that dominated the "Sun Temple" in Cuzco. He was honored as the highest oklagoma gods and the prayer below was offered to him by the high priest during the great sacrificial ceremonies:. Pachacuti's renovation of the Inca's religion was not precipitated by any cultural intrusions or social cataclysms.
Many have concluded that it was brlken for political goals, since the reform took place mainly among the elite or nobles of Inca society. It is known that Pachacuti had visions and it was in his father's vision that Viracocha had appeared earlier. Hultkrantz states that this cult must have been inspired by extraordinary religious experiences, while drawing from older traditions.
Who was this ancient Viracocha? Myths tell how he taught the original people to bolton ontario escorts the soil and practice several arts before he wandered out to sea. Concerning this myth, Hultkrantz declares that narratives of this type, of a culture hero who begins things and then disappears often with the promise of his return are, " fairly common among the Algonkin and Salish tribes of North America.
A northern Algonkin band, the Mascouten, prayed to the "Great Spirit" before and after the hunt, and also offered him firstfruit sacrifices. The Nez Perce embraced a Chief God. This "Chief" chose from among the people certain ones who received revelatory visions. Also, the people worshipped him with firstfruits offerings. Therefore write all these things that you have undesiravle in a book, put it in a hidden place; and you shall teach them to the wise among your owls head me milf personals, whose hearts you know are able to comprehend and keep these secrets.
And although there is evidence to support the pre-Christian concept of a firstfruits, revelatory, supreme creator being, other characteristics of the cult demonstrate clear Christian influence and must therefore be assumed to have arrived through primary cultural contacts. Louis inasking for Christian teachers and their Book. In the interval of twenty-five years massage and escort east hartford separated these two events, sjper Nez Perce adopted a recognizable form of Christianity with little to no direct white intervention.
Lewis and Clark make no reference to any Christian religious forms of worship in their s. There are however many observations of uncommonly hospitable and ethical behavior. The found the people industrious and able, cheerful 'but not gay,' somewhat reticent and reserved, with a dignified, proud bearing and high ethical standards.
Gass a member euper the Lewis and Clark expedition called them 'the most friendly, honest, and ingenious' of all tribes. The Nez Perce were an extraordinary people. Their cultural values caught the attention of the first "different kind of man from any you have yet seen," from the "rising sun," but Lewis and Clark were not the men "who will bring with them a book. Twenty-five years later the Nez Perce would still be waiting for it, but the Words of the book were soon to arrive.
Yet, the Words did not come to the Nez Perce through the white man: they first came from the Indian. A band of Iroquois arrived on the Plateau oklagoma and decided to stay. Led by a Catholic Indian named Old Ignace, the band settled among the Flathead, a tribe with close ties to the Nez Perce that often camped along the Brkken just northeast of the Nez Perce.
Old Ignace had come from the Catholic mission at Caughnawaga and was eager to share his knowledge of Christianity with new bands. His teachings spread across the Plateau attached to the Prophet Dance cult. Before Old Ignace's arrival there is no mention of Christian rites and practices attached to the Prophet Dance. Until he arrived on the Plateau, a basic spiritual structure was in place for the acceptance of the Judeo-Christian God but there was neither a Sabbath-keeping, nor Christain type prayers associated with the cult.
A few years mqn to the Iroquois arrival, David Thompson, a trader, explorer, and devout Christian had come to the Plateau to establish a trading post for the North West Company. During an expedition inhe had observed the Prophet Dance ceremony many times. From band to band he was greeted with the dance after having requested to see the dance at the first village he visited.
In his description sper the rite there is no mention of Christain practices. Yet, by the early 's, most agrow and explorers describe morning and meal prayers along with a scrupulous keeping of a Sabbath. Alvin Josephy states that in their astonishment and enthusiasm the more devout trappers failed to realize that the Indians had adopted the practices as an addition to their own beliefs hoping to increase their power and welfare.
The trappers "often jumped to the conclusion that the Indians were ripe for conversion. On the other hand, the judgment as to whether the Indians were ripe for conversion to the white man's version of Christianity is most probably a logical choice, given their behavior. One thing is certain, the band's religious behavior had undergone a distinct metamorphosis.
Old Ignace was not the only source of Christian teaching that came to the Plateau through the preaching of converted Indians. The man responsible for these two children's enrollment was the young George Simpson. He had been placed in charge of fur trading operations on the Plateau for the Hudson Bay and North West fur companies who had merged in Motivated by pressures from London's Church Missionary Society and his own ambition to incorporate white customs, dress, and trade goods into the Plateau bands' culture he sfeking this would facilitate trade on the PlateauSimpson decided to have pupils brought to the Red River School.
He wrote:. Simpson, nor any other white of that time, could of course have any idea that the bands of the Plateau had a relatively new and clear idea of a Supreme Being, and not only an idea but a growing hunger to understand Him. Simpson offered Alexander Ross the post of schoolmaster at the Red River settlement. He wrote Ross, who was supwr as a leader of the trapping brigades,:.
Whether Ross offered any money to the Indians for the two children he took to the school is unknown, but when he first approached the Salish Flathe concerning the matter, he was met with indignation. A more precise of what Ross had told the Salish Headmen would be interesting to read, for it is certain that they could have had no clear idea undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma the white man's religion, nor a realization that Ross meant to end their sons' attachments to their own spiritual beliefs and shamanistic practices Ross must have given the headmen the belief that their sons were being accorded the privilege of receiving the secrets of that power for the use of their people.
Rather than Ross having given the Indians this idea, Ross was more likely surprised himself at the eagerness they displayed for the knowledge of the men from the God of the "rising sun. Simpson noted su;er his journal:. They are named Coutonais Pelly and Spokan Garry. The boys traveled with Simpson to the school and began their studies of reading, writing, history, geography and, of course, the Scriptures. Two years later the boys had progressed so well in their studies that they were baptized again on June 27,by the Reverend Jones having met the rather stringent requirements of admission to the church.
After four oklanoma of instruction the boys returned to their Plateau families, each carrying a leather-bound copy of The King James Bible. The book the people of the Plateau had so coveted first arrived in the hands of the sons of chiefs. Garry and Pelly's return clearly caused an explosive revival all across the Plateau. Miller fuck buddy carson city nevada county that their preaching "spread the Christianized prophet dance to corners of the Plateau where it had not been practiced before and reinforced its strength everywhere oneco ct adult personals. He also spoke of the concepts of brotherly love toward both Indians and whites, and the idea that making war was wrong except in self-defense.
Garry and Pelly's influence was recorded as far as northern British Columbia. This religion spread with amazing rapidity all over the country. It reached Fort Alexandria, the lower post of the district, in the autumn or Spokan Garry's influence also traveled south into the heart of the Nez Perce. Warren Ferris, an American Fur Company trader, wrote in about his encounter with a band that included many Nez Perce. They "have received some notions of religion either from pious traders or from traders or from transient ministers who have visited the Columbia.
Their ancient superstitions have given place to the more enlightened views of the Christian faith, and they seem to have become deeply and profitably impressed with the great truth of the gospel. They appear to be very devout and orderly, and never eat, drink, or sleep without giving thanks to God. Washington Irving relates an of the trapper Captain Bonneville, who described to Irving okalhoma amazing piety he observed in his first encounter with a small band of Nez Perce from the upper Clearwater region.
Bonneville asked the band to his hunting party, when:. It was a sacred day with them, and the Great Spirit would be angry should they devote it to hunting. They offered however, to accompany the party if it would delay its departure until the following day; but this the pinching demands of hunger would not permit, and the detachment proceeded. A few days afterward, four of them ified to Captain Bonneville that they were about to hunt. What do you expect to kill?
Preparatory to the chase they performed some religious rites, groken offered up to the Great Spirit a few short prayers supeer safety and success; then, having received the blessing of their wives, they leapt upon their horses and departed, leaving the whole party of Christian spectators amazed and rebuked by this lesson of faith and dependence on a supreme and benevolent Being. Wonder at such unaffected tenderness and piety, where it was least to have been sought, contended in all our bosoms with shame and confusion, at receiving such pure and wholesome instructions from creatures so far below us in all the arts and comforts of life The band was successful and returned ladened with buffalo which they shared A futher and more intimate intercourse with this tribe gave Captain Bonneville still greater cause to admire their strong devotional feeling.
Okalhoma honesty is immaculate, and their purity of purpose, and their observance of the rites of their religion, are most uniform and remarkable. They are certainly udesirable like a nation of saints than a horde of savages. Bonneville also commented somewhat impatiently that arrrow Nez Perce would not take vengence upon the Blackfeet for raiding their camps and taking their horses.
When Bonneville once harangued them, saying that unless they took some action against the Blackfeet they would cease to be considered men and the Backfeet could send their children and squaws against them, an Indian arose and said, attractive woman seeking generous man is bad to go to war for revenge.
The Great Spirit had given them a heart for peace, not for war. These early descriptions of native piety and religious-cultural transformations indicate the profound effect the Words of the white man's book were having on the Plateau people. Yet, no white man had directly ministered the Christian Gospel to the bands of the region. So far, the message had come through the mouths of Indians, and the ideals and concepts had simply been incorporated into the existing religious and cultural matrix.
The journey of these beliefs traveled into the heart of the Nez Perce bands by yet an even more indirect path than that of Anglican trained Pelly and Garry. The message traveled south through a Nez Perce Indian who heard Gary preach. This was the home of the Nez Perce Indian, "Hol-lol-sote-tote" who was given the name Lawyer by trappers early in the 's. It is said that he was given this name because of his shrewdness and argumentative abilities.
The earliest reference to his name was by Willian Marshall Anderson who had traveled through the region in He wrote in his journal: "Ol-lot-coat-sum, the talker -- The Whites knew him by the name of Lawyer. He served during the critical years when the Nez Perces were making the transition from a ts escort lorain usa way of life to becoming an agrarian culture. The story of his life becomes a commentary on the history of the Nez Perces.
His mother was a Racine redhead escort. He first heard the message of the Book from Spokan Garry in the spring of while visiting the Flathe. Lawyer spoke both the Nez Perce and the Spokan Flathead languages, so he was able to understand when Garry read undeslrable taught from the Bible. Upon his return to the Kamiah Valley, Lawyer taught his people what he had heard and spread the revival into the heart of the Nez Perce land.
The people undeslrable so aroused that a delegation was sent to St. Louis in the summer of to ask that Bibles and missionaries be sent to teach them. Untill about ten years ago as near as I can learn from looking for a little adventure w w, they knew nothing of the christian religion or of the Sabbath. Briken teacher [the lawyer] tells me that they had indeed before this seen a flag flying at the Forts of the H.
These were among some of the first ideas they had of religion. Soon after wh. With what motives these individuals went it is difficult to determine. To suppose that it was any thing but selfish motives, is to suppose that good can escorts daytona beach out of the natural heart.
Were I to judge of their motives by what I see now among the people I should say it was nothing but selfishness. Doubtless their was curiosity to find out something of the christian religion. There has been much said about the desire of this people for instruction but it is quite evident what it is for. This has evidently been the case is now. For many years a popular but mythical version of asian ts escorts el monte story became accepted which was basically a concoction by William Walker, a visitor to St.
Louis at the time. It is doubtful, however, if he ever saw the Nez Perce delegation. According to his story, he had visited William Clark, who told him that he had a delegation of Flathe that he was accommodating. Curiosity getting the better of him he entered the ading room to see the Indians. His description of the natives seems to be inaccurate and also his story of how they had come to be there appears to be just as mythical btoken his physical description.
According to his version of their story, some white men told the Indians after observing their religious rites, that the manner in which they worshipped was wrong and the Great Spirit was displeased rather than pleased. The whites told the Indians that there were other white people toward the rising sun that knew the true mode of worship and that they had a book that contained the proper directions for private independent escorts broomfield that would enable one to be received into the Great Spirit's country when one died.
Even though Walker's story is most probably false and afrow concoction he created after hearing of the incident, it was passed on to the Methodist Christian Advocate and Journal and Zion's Herald who published it. The became known among the white missionaries as "The Macedonian Call," and created the missionary fervor that years later resulted in Smith's escorts halesowen in Kamiah.
Smith's okahoma of Lawyer's is undoubtedly the more accurate. Smith's letter questions the authenticity of there being any truly Christian motive female personals for sex in ashwood oregon the journey to St. Louis; an observation he bases on his theology and his observations at Kamiah eight years after the event.
Christopher Miller's analysis of the apparently common, but ultimately different, millennial aspects of both the Prophet Dance cult and 19th century American Christianity sheds some light on Smith's attitude. In Miller's words the problem was a "misunderstanding that looking for fairford single ladies two very different prophetic traditions together.
This theology rejected the Calvinistic belief in predestination. Calvin had embraced the idea of the election as taught by the Apostle Paul in Scriptures, such as:. Theologians of the Great Awakening adopted the Arminian idea that man was responsible for his own sin and he, himself, must chose God's Grace offered by Jesus Christ, which was freely offered to all men.
This ideology then goes far toward explaining Smith's attitude toward the Kamiah Band. Prior to his description of the Lawyer's of the St. Louis delegation he writes:. Every thing that has been written or that has been nice thailand guy looking for girl before I left the States was in praise of this people so that the impression in the States seemed to be that the people were already christians or certainly almost christians.
Sweking sometimes the impression seemed almost to be that this people were destitute of moral depravity. Clearly, from his writings and theology, Smith could not conceive of the idea that the Indians could have any kind of true Christian faith apart from their acknowledgment of sin and acceptance of salvation as the uneesirable described it. To this question we will return; for now one thing was certain, with the call for missionaries and the Book published, the answer to undesirzble call was soon arrpw arrive.
Another important point that Miller brings out in his study is the merging of patriotism and Protestantism in the Great Awakening. Evangelical Americans were as fervent about their culture as their religion, and inherent in the preaching of the Gospel was the importance of civilizing the natives. Miller states that, "As a result of their conversion experiences, the missionaries were rendered incapable of dealing objectively with situations.
The spiritual epiphany brings peace, clarity, and a desire to understand God, know His ways, and please Him. A liminal experience does not produce prejudice. Rather, it is the environment that the one is born converted into that determines the religious-cultural ethnocentrism. Yet, to the white missionary, the Indian was worshipping God in an improper manner, and therefore the worship was savage and heathen.
In like manner, after being "born again" the new white convert was quickly assimilated into the particular brand of Christian cult at hand. Although it was not the conversion experience itself that produced the patriotic Protestant of the 's, Miller's description of the Protestant cult produced by the Great Awakening is graphic and accurate. Their religious convictions were married to their Americanism in such a totality, that the spread of the Liberal-frontier ideal was as sacred to them as the Ten Commandments, kndesirable both ideals have their root in law rather than revelatory grace.
The missionaries that the Nez Perce so desired were on their way, and with the Book so also came the law of civilization. The law was coming to the Nez Perce; nothing was going to stop it, and prophetically it was part of the plan. Comedy melbourne escorts for couples find itself surrounded by the tragic demand for flesh. O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath seeeking evidently set forth, crucified among you?
This only would I los angeles ca escort of you, received ye the Spirit by the works brokn the law, or by the hearing of faith? Are ye so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh? Galatians After Christ's departure, it took ten years before the original followers of Jesus looked beyond the boundaries of Bfoken for converts.
When they did, the question immediately arose as to what the Gentile convert should beoken like. Must Gentiles be civilized and assimilated into Judaism by submitting to circumcision? Must they be required to keep the law of Moses, or did they have the freedom erotic monkey escort experience Christ in their own cultural context? The contention arose between the Apostle Paul, who had established Gentile churches as far into the heart of the Roman Empire as Greece, and Jewish believers from Jerusalem under the apostleship terrebonne anal escorts James, the Lord's brother, and Peter.
The disagreement over this matter became so sharp that the first Church Council was called to decide the question. The incident that brought about the question occurred in Antioch. Certain Jews came from Judea to Antioch teaching the Gentile converts there that unless you were circumcised trans escorts birmingham al accordance with the Law and custom of Moses, you could not be saved. In the letter to the Galatians, Paul describes these men as "false brethren unawares brought in, undsirable came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage:" Brokej and Barnabas, his partner in the Antioch mission, "had no small disagreement and discussion with them.
When the oklahima convened, Jewish believers who belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, rose up and said that it was necessary for the Gentile believers to be circumcised, and that they must be charged to keep the Law of Moses.
After a long debate, Peter stood and recounted to the assembly his first experience with Coventry asian ts escort conversion. He described how he had been commanded to go to a Roman Centurion's home in a heavenly st albans escorts english. He was told to put aside his religious ideas of who was acceptable to God and simply do as he was told; for up until the vision he had held to the law that forbid him to enter a Gentile's house lest as a Jew he be defiled.
At the Gentile's home Peter proclaimed this message:. And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us; And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith. Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.
After this, James, the leader of the council proposed a compromise. The Gentile converts should not be required to keep the whole Law but only that they should abstain from foods offered to idols, from sexual immorality, from animals that had been strangled, and from blood. Clearly Paul agreed to this compromise in order to maintain peace among the churches, but he certainly did not agree that these laws were great taboos.
In his first letter to the Corinthian church he writes:.
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But meat commendeth us not to God: for neither, if we eat, are we the better; neither, if we eat not, are we the worse. But take heed lest by any means this liberty of yours become a stumblingblock to them that okllahoma weak. Paul's acquiescence kept the peace, and his concern was that his freedom from worldly-cultural laws would not cause one whose faith was not complete to be so offended or condemned that they would stumble away from Christ. This controversy between adherence to an external woman seeking nsa savona law and freedom from the law to pursue the relationship with Christ by faith, has been the primary spiritual battle in the Church from its foundation.
It was the torrance escort japanese argument only a decade after Jesus of Nazareth's departure, it is the center of Augustine's City of God, it is the foundation of Luther's Reformation, and it is the primary conflict in the white's mission to the Nez Perce. The law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for undrsirable and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, for whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.
Just a few of the Words of the Book had reached the Nez Perce. The Words had come to them spoken through the mouths of Indians, but now their "Macedonian call" had been heard. The word that cried out in their undesirable man seeking super broken arrow oklahoma would soon meet that which ojlahoma written in the Book. The site of the fur trade rendezvous was Ham's Fork of the Green River.